Theory of epidemiology

The department’s hallmark is the use of epidemiologic methods to study the aetiology of disease and in addition the effects of medical treatments. For that purpose, methods for (observational) epidemiologic research are being developed, evaluated, and implemented. The development of new methodology is linked to research that is currently ongoing at the department. The methodological focus is on methods for confounding adjustment, missing data, measurement error, and combinations thereof.


  • Vandenbroucke JP, Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR. Travel and venous thrombosis: an exercise in thinking about bias. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Aug 4;151(3):212-3.
  • Dekkers OM, Egger M, Altman DG, Vandenbroucke JP. Distinguishing case series from cohort studies. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Jan 3;156(1 Pt 1):37-40.
  • Le Cessie S, Debeij J, Rosendaal FR, Cannegieter SC, Vandenbroucke JP. Quantification of Bias in Direct Effects Estimates Due to Different Types of Measurement Error in the Mediator. Epidemiology 2012; 23(4):551-560.
  • Boef AG, Dekkers OM, le Cessie S. Mendelian randomization studies: a review of the approaches used and the quality of reporting. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Apr;44(2):496-511.
  • Penning de Vries B, Groenwold R. Comments on propensity score matching following multiple imputation. Stat Methods Med Res. 2016 Dec;25(6):3066-3068
  • Rozemeijer K, le Cessie S, van Hylckama Vlieg A, Rosendaal FR, Vandenbroucke JP, Poole C, Cannegieter SC. Exposure Opportunity: The Advantages of Including Men in Analyses of Female-Related Risk Factors. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 May 15;185(10):965-973.
  • Brakenhoff, T. B., Mitroiu, M., Keogh, R. H., Moons, K. G. M., Groenwold, R. H. H., & van Smeden, M. Measurement error is often neglected in medical literature: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2018;98:89–97.
  • Dendukuri, N., Schiller, I., de Groot, J. A. H., Libman, M., Moons, K. G. M., Reitsma, J. B., & van Smeden, M. Concerns about composite reference standards in diagnostic research. British medical journal 2018;360.
  • Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M. Investigation of the 'm' in the cmRCT design revealed dependence between trial results. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 26.