Prof. dr R.H.H. Groenwold (Rolf)

Area(s) of interest

  • Epidemiology
  • Causal Modelling
  • Electronic Healthcare Databases


Rolf Groenwold’s research focuses on the development and improvement of methods for causal research, in particular methods to assess the effects of medical interventions (e.g., drugs). He was trained in physics, in medicine (cum laude), in epidemiology (cum laude), and in statistics (distinction). In 2012, he received a ZonMW Veni research grant and in 2016 a ZonMW Vidi research grant for the proposal “Optimizing the methodological framework for studies of the effects of medical interventions using routine care data.” In 2017, he received a prestigious LUMC Fellowship to develop the statistical methodology that is required for epidemiologic research using routinely collected healthcare data.

(Key) Publications

  • Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M. Investigation of the 'm' in the cmRCT design revealed dependence between trial results. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018 Apr 26.
  • Groenwold RHH, van Smeden M. Efficient Sampling in Unmatched Case-Control Studies When the Total Number of Cases and Controls Is Fixed. Epidemiology. 2017 Nov;28(6):834-837.
  • Pajouheshnia R, Peelen LM, Moons KGM, Reitsma JB, Groenwold RHH. Accounting for treatment use when validating a prognostic model: a simulation study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017 Jul 14;17(1):103.
  • Penning de Vries B, Groenwold R. Comments on propensity score matching following multiple imputation. Stat Methods Med Res. 2016 Dec;25(6):3066-3068.
  • Groenwold RH, Sterne JA, Lawlor DA, Moons KG, Hoes AW, Tilling K. Sensitivity analysis for the effects of multiple unmeasured confounders. Ann Epidemiol. 2016 Sep;26(9):605-11.
  • Schmidt AF, Klugkist I, Klungel OH, Nielen M, de Boer A, Hoes AW, Groenwold RH. Bayesian methods including nonrandomized study data increased the efficiency of postlaunch RCTs. J Clin Epidemiol. 2015 Apr;68(4):387-96.
  • Groenwold RH, Moons KG, Vandenbroucke JP. Randomized trials with missing outcome data: how to analyze and what to report. CMAJ. 2014 Oct 21;186(15):1153-7.
  • Schuit E, Groenwold RH, Harrell FE Jr, de Kort WL, Kwee A, Mol BW, Riley RD, Moons KG. Unexpected predictor-outcome associations in clinical prediction research: causes and solutions. CMAJ. 2013 Jul 9;185(10):E499-505.
  • Groenwold RH, Donders AR, Roes KC, Harrell FE Jr, Moons KG. Dealing with missing outcome data in randomized trials and observational studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb 1;175(3):210-7. 
  • Groenwold RH, Klungel OH, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW. Selection of confounding variables should not be based on observed associations with exposure. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;26(8):589-93. 

Publications on Pubmed of R.H.H. Groenwold


Leiden University Medical Center
Building 1
Room C7-084

Albinusdreef 2
2333 ZA Leiden
Tel: +31 71 526 6534

Postalzone C7-P
P.O. Box 9600
2300 RC Leiden
The Netherlands