Dr. S.M. Arend



  • Infectious Diseases
  • Internal Medicine



The research interest has focused on various aspects of mycobacterial infections (mainly M. tuberculosis), in the fields of diagnostics, epidemiology and vaccine development.

The diagnostics research studies started with the development of a specific diagnostic test which has led to so-called interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) such as Quantiferon TB Gold which are nowadays used worldwide, and are part of many national guidelines on TB diagnosis (and is routinely used in LUMC). These studies included a variety of populations in different settings, e.g.:

-military personnel before or returning from a mission abroad

-professional football players

-contacts in a large-scale contact investigation among supermarket customers

-foreign-born contacts of a patient with smear-positive TB

-recent immigrants in the Netherlands

One randomized double blind phase I study used a MTB-specific antigen (ESAT-6) as a skin test reagent, as proof of principle.



Otherwise the research covers a very wide range of subjects and includes case series, case reports and epidemiological studies (see list of publications).


-Outpatient Department: various infectious Diseases problems (special topics: active and latent tuberculosis, patients with immune deficiencies).

-Supervisor of consultants, inpatient department infectious diseases and outpatient dept. of internal medicine by rotation



-Coordinator of second year module in medicine (Mechanisms of Disease1)

-Teacher in many other modules, early practice concacts (VPC), teaching of interns etc

-Supervision/guidance of research apprenticeships or voluntary research activities of medical students


Committees & other activities

-Committee for the assessment of exams in medicine (ToetsbeoordelingsCie)

-Work group revision of Master of Medicine in curriculum 2012

-Contribution to selection of medical students in ‘Decentrale Selectie’

-IGRA-working group for Commissie voor Praktische Tuberculosebestrijding for development of guideline ‘Placement of Interferon Gamma Release Assays for the diagnosis of tuberculosis’ 25.101 (link to guideline) .

-Member of working party for guideline prevention of tuberculosis in the hospital setting (WIP richtlijnen)

-Data safety monitoring board for novel skin test studies (Denmark, UK)

-Peer reviews for many journals 


-Arend SM, Thijsen SF, Leyten EM, Bouwman JJ, Franken WP, Koster BF, Cobelens FG, van Houte AJ, Bossink AW. Comparison of two interferon-gamma assays and tuberculin skin test for tracing tuberculosis contacts. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;175(6):618-27.  

-Arend SM, Leyten EM, Franken WPF, Huisman EM, van Dissel JT.  A patient with de novo tuberculosis during anti-TNF-a therapy illustrating diagnostic pitfalls and paradoxical response to treatment. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45;1470-5.

-Arend SM,  Franken WP, Aggerbeck H, Prins C, van Dissel JT, Thierry-Carstensen B, Tingskov PN, Weldingh K, Andersen P. Double-blind randomized Phase I study comparing rdESAT-6 to tuberculin as skin test reagent in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2008;88:249-61.

-Bumbacea D, Arend SM, Eyuboglu F, Fishman JA, Goletti D, Ison MG, Jones CE, Kampmann B, Kotton CN, Lange C, Ljungman P, Milburn H, Morris MI, Muller E, Muñoz P, Nellore A, Rieder HL, Sester U, Theodoropoulos N, Wagner D, Sester M. The risk of tuberculosis in transplant candidates and recipients: a TBNET consensus statement. Eur Respir J. 2012;40(4):990-1013.

-Arend SM, van Soolingen D. Editorial commentary: genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China and missing links in the chain of ongoing transmission of tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jul 15;61(2):228-32.

List of all publications: link 


Dr. Sandra Arend studied medicine in Leiden. After a period of work in emergency medicine, combined with a study in Math and Informatics, she was trained as internist in Bronovo Hospital, the Hague, and Leiden University Medical Center (1990-1996). Her subsequent specialization in infectious diseases in LUMC was completed in 1998, followed by research projects aimed at the development of novel diagnostic blood tests for specific detection of tuberculosis infection resulting in a Ph.D. Thesis in 2002. Since 2001 she is a staff member at the department of Infectious Diseases. Since then she performed, supervised or participated in a large number of research projects mainly focused on various aspects of tuberculosis or nontuberculous mycobacterial infections (4 Ph.D.s). She has a very broad interest in clinical care, teaching and research. Her hobby is juggling and her favourite sport is running.




























































































































































Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum
Gebouw 1
Kamer C5P-40

Albinusdreef 2
2333 ZA Leiden
Tel: +31 71 5264915

Postbus 9600
2300 RC Leiden

E-mail: s.m.arend@lumc.nl