Task performance is usually limited by the human capacity for control, attention and memory. When task demands exceed the human potential, goal-direction behavior is replaced by random or habitual behavior associated with performance decrements, or ultimately even industrial disasters. Our research aims at optimizing performance by (i) minimizing risks and task demands; the ergonomics approach, and (ii) maximizing human capacity; the enhancement approach. Interventions can vary from designing clearer traffic signs to entraining neural communication. Outcome measures can vary from counting oil platform incidents to recording functional connectivity in the brain by fMRI.